Morphological word formationis the formation of the words with the help of combining morphemes.
· Affixation is adding a suffix or a prefix or both to the word stem.
Suffixationis adding a suffix to the end of a stem, e.g. employee, equipment, threefold, criticize
Prefixation is adding a prefix at the beginning of the word stem, e.g. unpleasant, enroll, foresee, overestimate subdivide, impossible.
Suffixation-and-prefixation is adding of a suffix and prefix to the word stem, e.g. unspeakable, disconnection, impossibility overproduction.
· Back formation is formation of a new word from an older and more complex form, e.g.
|beggar Morphological word formation – to beg editor – to edit television – to televise rover -- to rove peddlar – to peddle||baby-sitter – to baby-sit forced landing – to force land blood-transfusion – to blood-transfuse finger printings – to fingerprint|
· Abbreviation (clipping, shortening, contraction) is deriving the new word by cutting off a part of the initial word. Omission of the beginning of the word is called aphaeresis / ə’fierisis/ (fore-clipping),
e.g. telephone – phone
refrigerator – fridge
aeroplane – plane
Omission of the last part of the word is called apocope /ə’pokəpI/ (back-clipping),
e.g. laboratory – lab
doctor – doc
dormitory – dorm
camera – cam
advertisement – ad
· Compoundingis deriving a new word that consists Morphological word formation of a combination of stems, e.g. dark-grey, sunlit, broadcast, whitewash , Anglo-Saxon, into, anything.
Compounding is one of the most productive types (other productive types are conversion and affixation). Compound-derivedwords are the wordswiththe affix added to the compound stem,
e.g. housekeeper, trustworthy, heart-breaking
Compounds are not homogeneous in structure. Traditionally three types are distinguished: neutral, morphologicaland syntactic.
In neutral compoundsthe process of compounding is realized without any linking elements by a mere juxtaposition of two stems, e.g. blackbird, shop-window, sunflower, bedroom
Subtypes of neutral compounds are:
· Simple neutral compounds: they consist Morphological word formation of simple affixless stems.
· Compounds which have affixes in their structure are called derivedor derivational compounds,e.g. absent-mindedness, blue-eyed, golden-haired, broadshouldered, film-goer, music-lover
The productivity of this type is confirmed by a considerable number of comparatively recent formations,
e.g. teenager, babysitter, fourseater (a car or a boat with four seats), double-decker (a ship or bus with two decks).
Nonce-words are coined on this pattern which is another proof of its high productivity,
e. g. luncher-out (a person who habitually takes his lunch in restaurants and not at home),
goose-flesher (murder story Morphological word formation),
attention getter, go-getter (a pushing person),
Contracted compoundshave a shortened (abbreviated) stem in their structure,
e.g. TV-set /-program/ -show
V-day (Victory day),
G-man (Government man, FBI agent),
Acronyms are words that are composed of the first letters of some words,
e.g.NATO (North Atlantic treaty Organization),
UNESCO(United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization),
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome),
Scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus).
Initialismsare an extreme kind of clipping. Only the initial letters of the words are put together and Morphological word formation used as words. They are pronounced with the letters of the alphabet, e.g.
|AI (artificial intelligence) BP (blood pressure) VIP (very important person) gf (girl friend)||USA BBC MP UNO|
Morphological compoundsare few in number. This type is non-productive. It is represented by words in which two compounding stems are combined by a linking vowel or consonant,
e. g. Anglo-Saxon,
craftsmanship, spokesman, statesman.
Syntactic compounds are formed from segments of speech, preserving in their structure numerous traces of syntagmatic relations typical of speech: articles, prepositions, adverbs, e.g.
|lily-of-the-valley Jack-of- all Morphological word formation-trades good-for-nothing mother-in-law sit-at-home||pick-me-up know-all go-between get-together whodunit (a detective story)|
e.g. Randy managed to weave through a maze of one-way-streets, no-left-turns, and